This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.
ASQ, 2013a. Glossary: Q. American Society for Quality. Available at:
ASQ, 2013b. ASQ History. American Society for Quality. Available at:
ASQ, 2013e. Bio Philip Crosby. American Society for Quality. Available at:
ASQ, 2013d. Bio Walter Deming. American Society for Quality. Available at:
ASQ, 2013c. Bio Joseph Juran. American Society for Quality. Available at:
Axelsson, J., and Bergman, B., 1999. The dynamics of quality and work life improvement – the Scandinavian heritage. The Nordic School of Quality Management. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
Cavanagh, R. R., Neuman, R. P., Pande, P. S., 2000. The Six Sigma Way. McGraw-Hill.
Christensen, C. M., 2006. The Innovator’s Dilemma. First Collins Business Essentials.
Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, A., 1999. The Nordic School of Quality Management. Studentlitteratur.
Evans, J. R., 2008. Quality and Performance Excellence: Management, Organization, and Strategy. Mason, Ohio: Thomson Business and Economics.
Evans, J. R., Lindsay, W. M., 2008. Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence. Mason, Ohio: Thomson Business and Economics.
GE, 2013. What Is Six Sigma? General Electric. Available at:
Hendricks, K. B., Singhal, V. R., 1997. Does Implementing an Effective TQM Program Actually Improve Operating Performance? Empirical Evidence from Firms That Have Won Quality Awards. Management Science, 43(9), pp.1258–1274.
Holpp, L., Pande, P., 2002. What is Six Sigma? McGraw-Hill.
ISO, 2013a. The ISO story. International Organization for Standardization. Available at:
ISO, 2013b. ISO 9000 Quality management. International Organization for Standardization, 2013. Available at:
Levinson, W. A., Rerick, R. A., 2002. Lean Enterprise: A Synergistic Approach to Minimizing Waste. ASQ Quality Press.
Shaffie, S., Shahbazi, S., 2012. Lean Six Sigma. McGraw-Hill.
JUSE, 2013. Outline of JUSE. Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. Available at:
UNIDO, 2005. Technology foresight manual. Organization and Methods, Volume 1. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, 2013. Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945-52, Available at: